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Saturday, May 21, 2022

Heroic Hindu resistance: a look at contemporary Sanskrit inscriptions

Medieval Hindu history is often reduced to a series of Islamic invaders rampaging through North Bharat. Bharat’s ‘secular’ Abrahamo-leftist historians have painted a picture of the country being a cakewalk for every random Islamic invader while totally overlooking the heroic resistance put up by one Hindu dynasty after another to keep the invaders at bay for at least 3 to 4 centuries.

Contemporary Sanskrit inscriptions of Hindu kings

The biggest bane of Bharat’s history has been the total neglect of indigenous sources and total dependence on Persian and Arabic sources that in the words of Dr. Mishra has produced an unbalanced view due to the fact that the majority of the Muslim historians belonged to the Ulema class thereby bringing in their prejudices. They rejected any other account, no matter how authentic, if it happened to subvert their basic belief in the might of Islam.

“The Sanskrit records of Western Asia and Ancient India will appear to be more authentic and of greater antiquity than any of the writings of the Arab and Persian historians”, writes Alexander Dow in his eighteenth-century book The History of Hindostan.

It is, therefore, apt that we begin our series on the heroic resistance put up by several medieval Hindu dynasties to keep Islamists from overrunning Bharat and upholding Dharma by examining some of the numerous Sanskrit inscriptions. Although we would be seeing only a handful of inscriptions, they would help us to look at medieval Bharatiya history in a new light and provide a fresh perspective of our history thereby helping us to understand the valor displayed by our ancestors in their efforts to stop Islamist forces instead of the defeatist attitude foisted on them by Abrahamo-leftist historians.

Chalukya Avanijanashraya Pulakesin

Hindu
PC: Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders by Dr. Ram Gopal Mishra

Pulakesin, son of Dharashraya Jayasimhavarman, who became the ruler in 731 CE corresponding to the rule of Vatapi Chalukya Vikramaditya II is one of the numerous medieval Hindu kings who put up a heroic resistance against the marauding Arabs. Pulakesin, who later earned the title Avanijanashraya, defeated the invading Arab Ummayeds in a fierce battle at Navsari.

Information regarding this important battle came to light when the Navsari plate of Raja Pulakesin was discovered. According to this plate, the battle with the Tajika army (Arab forces) is said to have taken place in the year 490 of the Kalachuri Era roughly corresponding to the 739 CE Gregorian Era (737 or 738 CE as per certain estimates).

The inscription also confirms the Arabs, who were referred to as anivartaka meaning unrepealable, had overrun several Hindu principalities and advanced as far as Broach. However, their march was halted by Pulakesin who effectively guarded the gates of Deccan. The significance of this victory of Avanijanashraya Pulakesin lies in the fact that it pushed the Arabs back to Sindh as several Hindu kingdoms began asserting their independence and overthrew the authority of Umar II.

Gurjara-Pratihara Bhoja I

Hindu
PC: Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders by Dr. Ram Gopal Mishra

The Gwalior stone inscription of Bhoja I of the Gurjara-Pratihara talks of the contribution of his ancestors in repelling Islamic attacks. Nagabhata I formed an alliance of Hindu rulers against the Arabs. Rashtrakuta Jaysimha Varman and Mewar’s Bappa Rawal were a part of the alliance that was joined by Avanijanashraya Pulakesin to fend off the Arabs and thwart their subsequent minor attempts to extend their dominance over interior Bharat.

While Pulakesin blocked the southward march of the Arabs, their advance towards the West was resolutely checked by Nagabhata I which is confirmed from the Gwalior inscription. Arab travelers also confirm the enmity of the rulers of Jurz (as they referred to the Gurjaras) towards the Arabs. Bhoja I also mentions one of the most powerful Gurjara-Pratihara rulers Nagabhata II in his Gwalior inscription. Nagabhata II also achieved decisive victories over the Arabs.

Chahamana Chandamahasena

Hindu
PC: Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders by Dr. Ram Gopal Mishra

Chandamahasena was the Chahamana ruler of Dhavalapuri (modern Dholpur) and possibly a feudatory of Pratihara Emperor Bhoja. According to Mishra and HC Ray, the Mleccha rulers being referred to in the inscription are probably those Arab settlements in the Chambal valley that came up due to a long series of Arab raids from the lower Indus valley. This inscription dated to 842 CE and records the consecration of the Chandaswamin Temple along with a pond and well.

Chandella Kirtivarman

Hindu
PC: Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders by Dr. Ram Gopal Mishra

This is an undated inscription of Chandella ruler Kirtivarman located at Mahoba that speaks of Chandella king Dhanga who ruled from 954 to 1002 CE. Hammira or Hamvira is the Sanskrit equivalent of the Arabic title Al-Amir. The regnal dates of Dhanga indicate that he was the contemporary of Subuktigin (977-997 CE) and Mahmud of Ghazni (998-1030 CE). It is possible that the inscription makes a reference to a fight with either of the two. Mishra believes that Dhanga was the Kalinjar ruler who was part of the alliance of Hindu Rajas of Delhi referred to by Firishta.

Paramara Naravarman

Hindu
PC: Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders by Dr. Ram Gopal Mishra

This is the Nagpur inscription of Naravarman where he talks about his brother Laksmadeva, the Parama ruler of Malwa. It highlights some great victories of Laksmadeva over the Turuskas. Some scholars have opined that Vankshu was a branch of the Ganga river. During the reign of Ibrahim of Ghazni, his son Mahmud, who had been appointed as the Governor of Punjab, repeatedly attacked Ganga-Yamuna valley. This inscription thus points out the victories scored by Laksmadeva over Mahmud.

Rashtrakuta Lakhanapala

Hindu
PC: Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders by Dr. Ram Gopal Mishra

The Badaun inscription of Rashtrakuta ruler Lakhanapala describes the prowess of Madanapala who was the sixth Rashtrakuta ruler of Kannauj and a contemporary of Masud III (1099-1115 CE). Dr. Mishra states that the inscription belies the successes of Muslim armies during Masud III’s reign as narrated by Muslim historians and court poets.

Gahadavala Madanapala

Hindu
PC: Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders by Dr. Ram Gopal Mishra

The Rahan inscription of Gahadavala Madanapala or Madanachandra testifies the victories achieved by his son Govindachandra, while he was still a prince, over the Muslim armies sent by Ghaznavid ruler Masud III. “The immunity from Muslim danger secured by Govindachandra for his kingdom was so effective that he gained fame as the incarnation of Hari”, says Dr. Mishra.

Chahamana Visaladeva

Hindu
PC: Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders by Dr. Ram Gopal Mishra

The Delhi-Siwalik pillar inscription of Vigraharaja IV, who was also known as Visaladeva, speaks of his achievements in scoring victories over the Turuskas and Mlecchas. The Chahamana dominions during the reign of Vigraharaja extended up to the Himalayan foothills and the territories between Jamuna and Sutlej were also brought under the Chahamana dynasty by 1164 CE. This naturally brought Vigraharaja IV into conflict with the Yaminis of Ghazni and Lahore time and again.

We have merely dealt with a handful of inscriptions by Hindu rulers but these clearly hint at the resistance put up by Hindu dynasties of medieval Bharat to keep the Islamic armies from overrunning Bharat. We shall subsequently study how several Hindu rulers and dynasties stood up to be counted both individually and collectively to save the country from marauding Islamic forces. Bharat was never a cakewalk for the Islamists because of the Kshatriya spirit of the Hindu rulers who never got their rightful place in Bharat’s history textbooks.

References:

  1. Heroic Hindu Resistance To Muslim Invaders 636 AD 1206 AD – Shri Sita Ram Goel (Source)
  2. Indian Resistance To Early Muslim Invaders upto 1206 AD – Dr. Ram Gopal Mishra

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Maitri
Maitri
A opinionated girl-next-door with an attitude. I'm certainly not afraid to call myself 'a proud Hindu' and am positively politically incorrect. A Bharatiya at heart who loves reading, music, sports and nature. Travelling and writing are my passions.

1 COMMENT

  1. I like to know our History as long as Hindu issues are told with no political bias nor should it change facts to suit political requirements.Yes we Hindus have been beaten plundered wealth stolen deprived our rights .Our tolerence was /is taken as weakness .Time we stand up.This article are hidden facts of those rulers who in their own way tried and Thwarted the imbecile invaders ,nomads and thiefs of the plans .

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