“The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order” is a book, authored by American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington in 1996. This book is an extension of his earlier paper “The clash of civilisations?” published in 1993. This paper was a response to a book “The End of History and The Last Man” authored by Francis Fukuyama who argued that the collapse of Soviet Russia and the ultimate end of cold war has brought end of ideological conflicts and ultimately “end of history” in Hegelian sense.
In his paper “The Clash of Civilisation”, the author Samuel Huntington refuted the argument and projected future conflicts. As per him the future conflicts will be clash of civilisations in which “religion” and “culture” will play a major role and will ultimately lead to new world order. The systematic observation of post cold war world happenings only confirms that what Samuel Huntington predicted before twenty seven years is going to be true.
The Arab-Israel conflicts are nothing but a conflict of Islam and Jew religion. The migration of Middle East refugees to European countries has developed a new face of Islam-Christianity conflicts unlike earlier crusade or jihad era against each other.
Bharat has its own challenges to her inherent Hindu civilisation, which is embedded with Hindu religion which may be proved as a determining force for its very existence.
Hindu religion is suffocating severely in the constitutional democratic independent state of Bharat. Hindu religion which has flourished the most ancient, glorious Hindu civilisation within the lap of Bharatvarsha, secluded from rest of world by high Himalayan mount peaks and the oceans surrounding her. The civilisation faced brutal attack from Islam through the invasion of the Arabic, Turkic, Afghan and Mongol through north-western frontier passes.
In order to wipe out the Hindu religion they targeted the Hindu religious institutions. They destroyed the temples, universities, scriptures, killed unarmed hindus mostly Brahmins, banned, restricted festivals and imposed tolerance tax or jiziya to pilgrimage. Surprisingly, Hindu civilisation survived the wrath of Islamic aggression for seven hundred years though major civilisation of Egypt, Persia, Mesopotamian and sub-Saharan civilisations succumbed to death within fifty years of Islamic invasion.
Hindu civilisation also survived the Christian subjugation under European rule for another two hundred years. They too systematically targeted religious institutions such as temple dance forms and arts were banned, sanskritic education, legal and economic systems were substituted by current European systems. They too demonised many Hindu practices as evil and superstitious for smooth penetration of Christian missionaries.
The ghost of this evangelical Christianity of decimating the local cultures and civilisations has been well documented in the book “Dark side of Christianity” by author Hellen Ellerbe and in the book “The Darkening Age” authored by Catherine Nixey.
Though the foreign aggressors tried violently, technically and intelligently to wipe out Hindu religion but surprising to many outside watchers, Hindu civilisation survived till colonial power ended in Bharat.
In a free Bharat, the duty and responsibility of the front leaders had to revive and to revitalise the Hindu civilisation, which was completely in their hand. Instead of looking deep into their ancient heritage of knowledge and wisdom, India’s constitution makers preferred to search the constitutional books of western countries and adopt their values to write the Indian constitution for new India.
Bharat’s independence was not won by its people, rather it had been granted through an act of British Parliament, Indian Independence Act-1947. This act also carved out another theological state as a result of Pakistan movement by the Muslim League, on the basis of religion. The partition witnessed the severe bloodshed mostly of Hindus by the Islamic aggressors in West Punjab and East Bengal of newly carved Pakistan.
Then, isn’t it matter of surprise and matter of stupidity as well, when free Bharat guaranteed “Right to propagate religion” as a fundamental right in art 25 of newly created constitution? State sponsored conversion of Hindus was a prime feature of Islamic and Christian rule over Bharat and that to by means of institutional violence.
Right to propagate religion is a provision which is definitely functioning against Hindus as proselytisation of people into its own fold has never been a fundamental principle of Hindu religion which is necessarily a basic principle of Islam and Christianity. The demographic statistics of North-Eastern states, some parts of southern states and tribal regions in Bharat has shown decline in Hindu population.
Art 26(a) of Indian constitution guarantees fundamental rights to religious communities of freedom to manage religious affairs Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right to manage its own affairs in matters of religion.
But, is it not injustice to Hindu communities when Bharatiya States overpowered Indian constitution while taking control of only Hindu temples through acts? Is not it a partisan behaviour of the States when allowing other religious communities to manage their own institutions?
Art 28(1) reads No religion instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. This provision prevents the gems of Hindu intellectual thinker’s discourse in Upanishads and six darshanas in educational curriculum.
Art 29 -30 guarantees fundamental right to minorities to preserve in a wide sense of language, script, culture and religion in addition will receive state fund for this cause. Except Hinduism all other religions in Bharat are declared as minorities and hence they established their institutions to impart their respective religious teachings to their kids and youths. And it is really worrisome, when constitutionally; Hindus are obstructed to establish such institutions to impart their religious teachings to their generations.
There is no room left for Hindu generations to receive their religious teachings, values and ideals except through family initiation or parent’s initiation or self initiation.
Apart from Indian state, Indian Judiciary system is also observed to be indifference to the sentiments of Hindu religions. The Supreme Court judgement on 28th Septmenber 2018, on entry of women into Sabarimala temple is totally disrespecting the thousands year old tradition of the shrine. Another example is the judgement of Bombay High Court in April, 2016, by allowing the entry of women into Shani Singnapur temple in Aurangabad district is completely against the rituals of the temples.
Indian Constitution, the holy book for Supreme Court, overpowered the divine rituals of Hindu religion. Supreme Court of India is often seen of exercising judicial activism by denying or restricting the Hindu festival often during Deepavali and Holi. Such type of interference of Indian judiciary in the matters of other religion particularly Islam and Christianity has never been seen.
Example is the recent PIL petitioned by Wasim Rizvi, former chief of Uttar Pradesh Shia Central Wakf Board. The PIL had sought removal of 26 aayats of Quran, which the petitioner claimed is directed to act against non believers of Islam, which he stated are used as “justifications” by Islamist terrorist groups for attacks on nonbelievers/civilians. SC dismissed the PIL while imposing Rs 50,000 on the petitioner, by remarking “absolutely frivolous”!! This partisan behaviour of Indian judiciary has also been observed while dealing with Hindu spiritual persons and religious leaders of other religions.
Indian civil rights activists are observed to be mostly Marxists and are despising Hinduism. These civil rights activists are observed questioning the customs, rituals, traditions of Hindu religions very frequently through writings and petitioning PIL. In the name of animal cruelty they often filed PIL to prohibit Balipratha in Shakta temples whereas their activism hibernates during the animal sacrifice in Bakr-Eid of Islamic religion.
They reject karva Chauth, Sabitri brata and Raksha Bandhan as patriarchal practice whereas they never intend to view other religions in these aspects. They are forming different NGOs to raise international funds and supports from bitterest enemies of Hindu religion. These NGO activists are also importing movements such as LGBT, Feminism, Me Too, etc. from the west which has nothing to do with Hindu society.
The nefarious design of destabilising the Hindu identity which may lead to disintegration of the nation has been properly investigated and documented by the author researcher, Sri Rajiv Malhotra in his book “Breaking India”, published in 2011. The new form of threats towards Hindu civilisation due to the arrival of various digital platforms are highlighted by Sri Malhotra in his recent book “Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Power” published in 2021.
This is unfortunate but a fact, that Hindu religion seems as if under the subjugation of Indian constitution, state and civil rights activists. Hindu religious institutions are functioning with same restrictions as it was under the thousand years rule of foreign invading cultures. Then how long the Hindu civilisation which stems from Hindu religion will survive in such a controlled state even in self ruled Bharat? The basic civilisational questions are now outlined are:-
- Why Indian constitution has guaranteed right to propagation as a fundamental right?
- Why the Indian state is controlling Hindu temples?
- Why Hindus have no provisions of receiving their religious teachings and philosophies, like the minorities are enjoying?
- Why Indian judiciary is entertaining PIL which questions customs, rituals, traditions of Hindu religion?
- Why civil rights activists have always anti Hindu civilisation stands?
The Hindu natures of the Indian states are fading away. The Hindu civilisation is under peril and requires urgent repercussion and actions from awakened educated proud Hindus to voice for their existence. What the poor Hindus expect from Indian constitution, state, judiciary and civil rights activists that they should really behave “secular”, which they have been advocating and lecturing others to uphold the secularism as a true spirit.
Though, the meaning of the term “secular” from its inception in Europe, has been used in different contexts but for Bharat’s context it has been used in the sense “to treat all religions equally”.
- The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order; Samuel P. Huntington
- The clash of civilisations?; Samuel P. Huntington
- The End of History and The Last Man; Francis Fukuyama
- Dark side of Christianity; Hellen Ellerbe
- The Darkening Age; Catherine Nixey
- Breaking India; Rajiv Malhtra
- Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Power; Rajiv Malhtra
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Dr. Rakesh Muduli
About the Authors
Dr. Rakesh Muduli
He is currently serving under Govt. of Odisha. He has done his doctorate in physics from NIT Rourkela. He also has an LLB degree from Madhusudan Law College, Cuttack to his credit. He has deep interest in social and civilizational studies. He pens many research oriented articles in his spare time.
Sri Devasis Mishra
He has done his masters in Mechanical Engineering from NIT Rourkela. Currently he is serving under Ministry of Railways, Govt. of India. He engages himself in social work and social research in free time.